Also known as chemical messengers, are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission. They transmit signals across a chemical synapse, such as a neuromuscular junction, from one neuron (nerve cell) to another “target” neuron, muscle cell, or gland cell.
Neurotransmitters are released from synaptic vesicles in synapses into the synaptic cleft, where they are received by receptors on the target cells. Many neurotransmitters are synthesized from simple and plentiful precursors such as amino acids, which are readily available from the diet and only require a small number of biosynthetic steps to convert them. Neurotransmitters play a major role in shaping everyday life and functions.
Our understanding of the complexity of the Endocannabinoid system has evolved considerably since the cloning of the receptors in the early 1990s. Since then several endogenous ligands have been identified and their respective biosynthetic pathways unravelled.
This research has revealed the involvement of the cannabinoid system in a number of important physiological processes including the regulation of neurotransmitter release, pain and analgesia, energy homeostasis, and control of immune cell function. All of these events are mediated by two similar receptors, CB1 and CB2, which were initially thought to possess mutually exclusive expression profiles.
Recent advances have begun to dissolve such absolutes with the discovery of CB2 in brain tissue and identification of a range of functions for CB1 in peripheral tissues. With improved understanding of the cannabinoid system comes the illumination of various roles in disease pathologies and identification of potential therapeutic targets.
Below is a list of Cannabis Cannabinoids that are found in the Cannabis Plant. There are still over 100 uncategorized Cannabinoids that exist. We are continuously striving to discover new properties and healing powers of the Cannabis Plant and its properties.
Cannabinoids are a class of diverse Chemical Compounds that act on Cannabinoid Receptors in cells that repress Neurotransmitter Release in the brain. Ligands for these receptor proteins include the Endocannabinoids (produced naturally in the body by humans and animals), the Phytocannabinoids (found in cannabis and some other plants),
Formula:C21H30O2 Density:1.0±0.1 g/cm3 Molar Mass:314.2246 g/mol Boiling Point:220 °C (428 °F) Vapor Pressure:0.0±1.1 mmHg at 25°C Properties: Anti-inflammatory, Antibiotic, and Anti-fungal Notes:Cannabichromene is also non psychoactive, and has been shown to be about ten times more effective than CBD in treating anxiety and stress. It also displays efficiency in treating inflammation, pain relief and is both anti-viral and anti-tumor. CBC has been shown to stimulate the growth of bone tissue.
Formula: C21H30O2 Density: 1.0±0.1 g/cm3 Molar Mass: 314.2246 g/mol Boiling Point: 160 °C (320 °F) – 180 °C (356 °F) Vapor Pressure: 0.0±1.2 mmHg at 25°C Properties: Anxiolytic, Analgesic, Antipsychotic, Antiinflammatory, Antioxidant, and Antispasmodic Notes: Cannabidiol is “non-psychoactive” (in that it does not produce the euphoria, time dilation, or anxiety normally produced by THC) and has been shown to be extremely valuable in the treatment of seizure disorders such as MS and Epilepsy. Its lack of psychoactivity makes it ideal in treating children, the elderly and patients that prefer to remain clear headed and focused. CBD is often as effective as THC in the management of pain and tumors. CBD also lowers blood sugar, and has been used in the treatment of Diabetes. CBD has a calming effect, and is useful in the treatment of stress related disorders and sleep loss.
Formula: C22H30O4 Density: 1.1±0.1 g/cm3 Molar Mass: 358.2144 g/mol Boiling Point: 530.8±50.0 °C at 760 mmHg Vapor Pressure: 0.0±1.5 mmHg at 25°C Properties: Anti-inflammatory, Antibiotic, and Anti-fungal Notes: Ideal Decarboxylate Temperature: 120+ °C (248 °F) Until recently, Cannabidiolic acid was much more commonly found in higher concentrations in Ruderalis than in Cannabis. In the last few years, strains of Cannabis have been hybridized that produce more CBDA than THCA, including “Cannatonic-C6” and “ACDC.” CBDA has been shown to be both anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor.
Formula: C21H32O2 Density: 1.0±0.1 g/cm3 Molar Mass: 314.2246 g/mol Boiling Point: 470.4±40.0 °C at 760 mmHg Vapor Pressure: 0.0±1.2 mmHg at 25°C Properties: Anti-inflammatory, Antibiotic, and Anti-fungal Notes: Cannabigerol is non psychoactive, and has been shown to stimulate the growth of new brain cells, including in the elderly; it should be noted that genuinely neurogenic compounds are extremely rare. CBG also stimulates bone growth, is antibacterial and anti-tumor, and combats insomnia.
Formula: C21H26O2 Density: 1.1±0.1 g/cm3 Molar Mass: 310.1933 g/mol Boiling Point: 185 °C (365 °F) Vapor Pressure: 0.0±1.2 mmHg at 25°C Properties: Oxidation, breakdown, product, Sedative, and Antibiotic Notes: Cannabinol is an oxidation product of THC. It normally forms when THC is exposed to oxygen and heat. A high level of CBN often reflects cannabis that is old or has been exposed to significant heat. CBN is known to be very slightly psychoactive and more strongly sedative than other known Cannabinoids. As such, samples with significant CBN (approaching 1% by weight) can be useful to treat insomnia. CBN is also somewhat effective as an anti-emetic and anticonvulsant.
Formula: C22H30O4 Density: 1.1±0.1 g/cm3 Molar Mass: 358.4733 g/mol Boiling Point: 105 °C (220 °F) Vapor Pressure: 0.0±1.1 mmHg at 25°C Notes: Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid, like other acid cannabinoids, is not psychoactive. THC-A is strongly anti-inflammatory, encourages appetite, is anti-tumor, combats insomnia, and is antispasmodic. THC-A is the most abundant terpenoid (and Cannabinoid) in the vast majority of Cannabis grown in the U.S., reaching levels over 30% of dry weight for flowers from female, unpollinated plants (sensemilla). Many “high THC” strains, when grown and harvested optimally, produce about 15% THC-A by dry weight, though this can vary widely.
Formula: C21H30O2 Density: 1.0±0.1 g/cm3 Molar Mass: 314.2246 g/mol Boiling Point: 157 °C (315 °F) Vapor Pressure:0.0±0.9 mmHg at 25°C Properties: Euphoriant, Analgesic (Painkiller), Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, and Antiemetic Notes: The most abundant cannabinoid present in marijuana, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (commonly referred to as “Δ9-THC,” “D9-THC,” “d9-THC” or simply “THC”) is a neutral cannabinoid, well known for being strongly psychoactive. Of all the scientific discoveries that have been made about THC, probably the single most important was how THC enabled scientists to discover the existence of the Endocannabinoid system in vertebrate animals (including humans): a critical part of physiology that, up until then, was unknown. THC has been shown to be effective in the treatment of a variety of ailments and disorders including pain, tumors, nausea and ADHD.
A Chemical Compound (or just compound if used in the context of chemistry) is an entity consisting of two or more atoms , at least two from different- elements; which associate via chemical bonds. There are four types of compounds, depending on how the constituent atoms are held together: molecules held together by covalent bonds, salts held together by ionic bonds, intermetallic compounds held together by metallic bonds, and certain complexes held together by coordinate covalent bonds.