Category Archives: Glossary

What are Lipids?

Lipids

A group of naturally occurring molecules that include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, phospholipids, and others. The main biological functions of lipids include storing energy, signaling, and acting as structural components of cell membranes.

Glyceride

Monoglycerides

Diglycerides

Triglycerides

Phospholipids

Although the term lipid is sometimes used as a synonym for fats, fats are a subgroup of lipids called triglycerides. Lipids also encompass molecules such as fatty acids and their derivatives (including tri-, di-, monoglycerides, and phospholipids), as well as other sterol-containing metabolites such as cholesterol.

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What are Proteins?

Proteins

Are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within living organisms, including catalyzing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity.

Metabolic Reactions

DNA Replication

Stimuli

Nucleotide

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What is a Macromolecule?

Macromolecule

A very large molecule, as a colloidal particle, protein, or especially a polymer, composed of hundreds or thousands of atoms. The most common macromolecules in biochemistry are biopolymers (nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates and large non-polymeric molecules (such as lipids and macrocycles). Synthetic macromolecules include common plastics and synthetic fibers as well as experimental materials such as carbon nanotubes.

Carbohydrates

Polymeric Molecules

Biopolymers

Nucleic Acids

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Whats is an Organism?

Organism

In biology, an organism(s) is any contiguous living system, such as an animal, plant, fungus, or bacterium. All known types are capable of some degree of response to stimuli, reproduction, growth and development and homeostasis. When it has one cell it is known as a unicellular organism when it has more than one it is known as a multicellular organism. Most unicellular are of microscopic size and are thus classified as microorganisms. Humans are multicellular organisms composed of many trillions of cells grouped into specialized tissues and organs.

Biology

Homeostasis

Unicellular

Multicellular

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What is a Biomolecule?

Biomolecule

A biomolecule or biological molecule is any molecule that is present in living organisms, including large macromolecules such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids, as well as small molecules such as primary metabolites, secondary metabolites, and natural products. A more general name for this class of material is biological materials. Biomolecules are usually endogenous but may also be exogenous. For example, pharmaceutical drugs may be natural products or semisynthetic (biopharmaceuticals) or they may be totally synthetic.

Nucleic Acids

Metabolites

Endogenous

Semisynthetic

Synthetic

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What is a Complex (Coordination Complex)?

Coordination Complex

In chemistry, a coordination complex or metal complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.

Chemistry

Atom

Ion

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What is Pharmacology

Pharmacology

Pharmacology is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical and/or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species). More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals.

Endogenous

Exogenous

Bioactive

Physiological

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What is Biochemistry

Biochemistry

Biochemistry also known as biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. Plants, animals, and single-celled organisms all use the same basic chemical compounds to live their lives.

Biological Chemistry focuses on processes happening at a molecular level. It focuses on what’s happening inside our cells, studying components like proteins, lipids and organelles. It also looks at how cells communicate with each other, for example during growth or fighting illness. Biochemists need to understand how the structure of a molecule relates to its function, allowing them to predict how molecules will interact.

Covering a range of scientific disciplines, including genetics, microbiology, forensics, plant science and medicine. Because of its breadth, biochemistry is very important and advances in this field of science over the past 100 years have been staggering. It’s a very exciting time to be part of this fascinating area of study

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